Võro Language

Võro is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. It is spoken in the South-Eastern part of Estonia, where also Seto is spoken.

Võro and Seto languages on the Estonian map

Võro has preserved the system of vowel harmony that was present in Proto-Finnic. The vowel harmony system distinguishes front, back and neutral vowels, much like the system found in Finnish. A word cannot contain both front and back vowels.

From its closest Finnic language neigbours, Estonian doesn’t have vowel harmony but Finnish has.

Continue reading Võro Language

Adopt a Word, Adopt a Verb

There was an article about word that will “disappear” from the Swedish language. (The article in Swedish can be found here). In practice disappearing means that the word has fallen in disuse; either the word is old-fashioned and not used anymore, or there is a synonym that has replaced the old word.

Moreover disappearing means in the article that words won’t be incorporated in the next edition of the SAOL (Svenska Akademiens ordlista, Word List of the Swedish Academy).

In order to keep the old words in speech, Språktidningen proposes that we should “adopt the words” by keep using them.

In this context Verbix should adopt these verbs:
abradera,
absolvera,
accedera,
aducera,
afficiera,
affinera,
afrikanisera,
agglomerera,
aggravera,
allegorisera,
amalgamera,
appa,
atrofiera,
bemänga,
beriktiga,
bettla,
bissera,
bloppa,
bornera,
bräma,
cedera,
chargera,
deducera,
demissionera,
denotera,
denudera,
dirra,
disambiguera,
eklärera,
elektrolysera,
elidera,
emendera,
etymologisera,
evalvera,
excerpera,
expatriera,
explicera,
furnera,
fyka,
förfäas,
förpakta,
gendriva,
glindra,
glisa,
hasardera,
hundsfottera,
hypostasera,
hypotisera,
illudera,
inmänga,
judaisera,
klimatneutralisera,
kollationera,
kondemnera,
kongruera,
konterfeja,
krepera,
kujonera,
kvintilera,
lustvandra,
marodera,
merkantilisera,
missfirma,
misskänna,
munläsa,
niellera,
nitälska,
nobilisera,
oskära,
panikera,
parcellera,
probera,
prokotta,
prononcera,
proskribera,
protegera,
prusta,
påyrka,
redubbla,
reifiera,
rektifiera,
remisera,
remplacera,
resolvera,
rilla,
rubatera,
rulta,
sagla,
sakföra,
sauvera,
skalkas,
skillra,
skranka,
skula,
smygkontorisera,
strangulera,
subsumera,
supponera,
sämska,
tordera,
urgera,
vadeinlaga,
vindicera,
åtra,
åvägabringa,
ärna,
överidealisera

Cognates

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

For instance today’s Romance languages (Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, Catalan, etc.) all share the same “parent” language, the Latin. And therefore these languages have a lot of cognates.

Starting from October 2019, there are verb cognates on the Verbix website. On the cognate pages you can check out how the Indicative present looks like in different Romance languages.

As can be seen, sometimes the differences are relatively big. And what’s more, sometimes the meaning of the word may have changes.

West-Finnic, Baltic Finnic, Sami, AD 600

The West-Finnic tribes as shown on the map spoke Finno-Samic languages. Linguistically these tribes rather belong to Baltic-Finnic languages and Sami languages.

Anyway, round year 600 these branches of the Uralic languages were spoken on large areas in the northern Europe.

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Turcic Languages Next to the Black Sea

Oguri, Kutriguri, Utriguri, and Saraguri were all Turcic tribes speaking Turkic languages.

Agathias — the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558 — wrote: “…all of them are called in general Scythians and Huns in particular according to their nation. Thus, some are Koutrigours or Outigours and yet others are Oultizurs and Bourougounds… the Oultizurs and Bourougounds were known up to the time of the Emperor Leo (457–474) and the Romans of that time and appeared to have been strong. We, however, in this day, neither know them, nor, I think, will we. Perhaps, they have perished or perhaps they have moved off to very far place.

Click on the link below to see, where the cited tribes lived, whether they had “perished or moved off to very far place“.

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Hittite Culture in a Small Museum

I visited a small museum in Helsinki with an exhibition of textiles of a Finnish fashion designer Jukka Rintala. In the museum cellar I happened to find old statues from different cultures.

A statue beloning to the Hittite culture, found from Northern Syria

One of the statues originated from the Hittite culture, and was dated from 2000 BC. The language of Hittites, the Hittite language, was an Indo-European language, belonging to the Anatolian language branch.

More info:

Thraco-Phrygian Languages?

I had to check twice when I saw the word “thraco-phrygian”. Where are they supposed to live in Europe?

The Merriam Webster dictionary defines Thraco-Phrygian as an adjective “of, relating to, or constituting a tentative branch of the Indo-European language family to which are sometimes assigned various languages of the Balkans and Asia Minor not otherwise assignable

So they were living on the Balkans, and browsing on the Ethnohistory map found them there 1500BC.

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Slavic Tribes Living Far in the West

Today Slavic languages are spoken in Eastern Europe, in countries like Russia, Poland, Czech, and Serbia, to name a few. But almost a thousand year earlier there lived Slavic speaking tribes close to today’s Netherlands. See the map below and compare it with today’s political borders.

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So I Read 1500 Year Old Scandinavian Language

The oldest runestones in Sweden are written in a language that was called Old Scandinavian (or Proto Norse). In that time the language was understtod throughout Scandinavia.

Järsberg runestone, 1400 years after it was written.

I visited one of the runestones in Järsberg, Sweden, in the summer. And I encountered a verbform that is still easily read today: ᚹᚫᚱᛁᛏᚢ writu (write). So despite the almost 1500 years there is still something very common with the language.

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