The Finnish Verb Nauttia

The Finnish verb nauttia ‘to enjoy’ doesn’t have any equivalent among the closest language relatives.

The stem of this verb is an old Germanic loan, with a reconstructed word stem *nautijan- ‘to possess, to enjoy’. This stem is represented in today’s Swedish verb nöta ‘to spend’, with an older meaning ‘to enjoy’.

In written language the verb nauttia has been since the XVI century.

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Swedish in Finland

Finland, areas with predominantly Swedish speaking population
Swedish speaking areas in Finland

Swedish language is a Germanic language that is spoken in Sweden and in Finland. In Finland, the Swedish language is the second official language. Swedish is spoken on coastal areas in Finland.

There are four main variants of the Swedish in Finland as shown on the map. The spoken variations differ quite a lot from each other, but as a written language they are all the same. The written language is the same in Finland and in Sweden.

Links to go:

The Finnish Optative Mood

There is a less known mood in Finnish, the optative.

This mood is mainly archaic, and it appears mainly in poetry.

Although the Finnish optative mood is not used today, it has borrowed the 3rd person to the Finnish imperative mood.

Here are some samples:

 

How to Use the Spanish Verb Conjugation Book?

There’s an “Easter Egg” in Verbix 9 for Windows.

An Easter Egg in software is a hidden feature that is not documented. In Verbix 9 the hidden feature creates a Spanish Verb Conjugation book and saves it as PDF. This article describes how to use the book. As a matter of fact, this book is used exactly in the same way as any verb conjugation book that you can buy in a bookstore!

1. First look up the verb from the verb index.

As in many verb conjugation books, the Spanish Verb Conjugation book created in Verbix for Windows 9.0 has an index of verbs.

Let’s find for example ‘ser’ (English ‘to be’).

 

2. Check the verb model that the verb refers to.

In the index the verb ‘ser’ is marked with number 1. This number refers to the verb conjugation table 1. Now that we browse the book to verb conjugation table 1, we find the verb ser conjugated in all tenses.

As in Verbix, irregular forms are displayed in red and regular forms are in black.

About the Spanish Verb Conjugation Book

The book has an index of 38,395 verbs.

The book comprises 231 pages.

Color coding clearly shows additional information of every verb form:

  • regular forms in black
  • irregular forms in red
  • forms that have changes in spelling due to orthographic rules are in blue
  • archaic forms are in purple
  • non-used (hypothetical) forms are in grey

The book is free!

 

Verb tables in PDF

One of the new features of the upcoming Verbix 9 is the possibility to create PDF documents of the verb conjugation tables.

This makes it possible to put your favorite verbs on your iPhone or any other gadget that supports PDF.

Or simply print out the verb table.

The PDF is supported first for Spanish verbs. Please vote for getting PDF support for other languages, too.

  • The verb cocer ‘to cook’ conjugated in all tenses: Cocer verb.

So Many Books Got Lost!

A couple of years ago Verbix incorporated verb conjugation of many Swedish dialects. This work would never have been possible without books from the serie “Svenska landsmål och svenskt folkliv“. These books were acquired from the Åbo Akademi University in Finland.

More specifically the books were bought from the “Duplicate Centre” of Åbo Akademi.

The Duplicate Centre had acquired during the years of existance a lot of books as donations. In the first hand the collections featured Swedish litterature and science. And the duplicates were sold and the money was spent on aquiring more litterature to the University Library.

In 2009 the Duplicate Centre was closed and the books were moved to a cellar in a nearby manor — out of reach for anyone!

Links to go:

 

Korean or Arabic

The Korean and Arabic languages were added about in the same time on the Verbix website. Both languages support conjugating verbs since a few months back.

It has been interesting to follow how many verbs have been conjugated since then. Today (9/21/2011) Arabic verbs have been conjugated 59,241 times and Korean verbs 58,226 times.

In the all-time ranking these languages now have the 44th and 45th place in the number of verbs having been conjugated. The most conjugated language is Spanish with verbs having been conjugated 76,986,823 times!

Links to go:

 

The Swedish verb promota

The Swedish language keeps incorporating words from other languages, such as English for example.

Therefore it’s no surprise that the Swedish adopted the verb promota ‘to promote’, too. The new ‘Swedish’ verb appeared in the beginning of 1990’s. Like other new verbs in the Swedish language, this verb is fully regular.

The work promote originally comes from the Latin language from two separate words pro ‘forward’ and movere ‘to move’. And based on this Latin background, we find the Swedish verb promovera ‘to promote’

Links to visit:

 

Meaning of the Translation

Translation with no context
Translation with no context
Earlier Verbix versions have translations for common verbs. One problem is, however, that the translations had no context. And when translating one word in the source language can have multiple translations according to the meaning.
Translations grouped by meaning
Translations grouped by meaning

The upcoming Verbix 9 will include meaning (or context, as mentioned earlier in this article) of the translation along with the translation itself. This helps the user to choose the correct translation in the desired context.

Dictionaries typically contain the dictionary entry as follows:
  1. Headword
  2. Meaning
  3. Translation
So will Verbix 9, too.
As seen in the image, a dictionary entry can sometimes include the translation multiple times. This is the case with ‘escribir’, because it bares multiple meanings.
Translations grouped by translations
Translations grouped by translations
Therefore Verbix 9 will show the dictionary entry grouped in the following way:
  1. Headword (source term)
  2. Translation
  3. Meaning(s)
This makes the list easier to read.

Place Those Accents Correctly

Many Western European languages use the same alphabet as English, with one significant difference. There can be diacritics (or accents) above certain characters.

For a student of a foreign language, it’s important to place those accents correctly. Sometimes these tiny small markers can be forgotten, for example when conjugating a verb. If the accents are forgotten, the verb conjugation may even fail.

To check that the accents are placed correctly, have a look at the reverse conjugator. There you can write the infinitive without accents and the reverse conjugator tells, whether accents should be added or not.

Check for instance the Spanish verb ‘reir’. (Note! I misspelled it on purpose)

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